A Collection of Reputable Information about COVID-19 Vaccines

This is a collection of vetted and reputable articles regarding COVID-19 vaccine information. No hyperbole. No fluff. Only well-researched work.

Collection of Reputable Information about COVID-19 Vaccines
Photo: Jerica Pitts/Pfizer via AP.  Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine storage facility in Kalamazoo, Michigan.

Latest News Articles

How Moderna designed the Coronavirus vaccine in 2 days – November 26, 2020

Susie Neilson, Andrew Dunn, and Aria Bendixfrom Business Insider detail the story of Moderna rapidly creating a COVID-19 vaccine with 94.5% effectiveness in a mere 2 days.

https://www.businessinsider.com/moderna-designed-coronavirus-vaccine-in-2-days-2020-11

mRNA: This once dismissed idea became a leading technology in the race to a COVID-19 vaccine – November 10, 2020

This article by Damian Garde of STAT and Jonathan Saltman of the Boston Globe cover the long history of mRNA, stretching back as far as 1990.

Read the full article here: https://www.statnews.com/2020/11/10/the-story-of-mrna-how-a-once-dismissed-idea-became-a-leading-technology-in-the-covid-vaccine-race/
Cited paper: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1690918/

COVID-19 Vaccine Trials

Molecular platformTotal number
of candidates
Number of candidates
in human trials
Non-replicating viral vector314
RNA-based313
Inactivated virus143
Protein subunit763
DNA-based190
Replicating viral vector210
Virus-like particle130
Live attenuated virus40
Vaccine candidates,
developers, sponsors
TechnologyCurrent phase (participants)
design
Completed phase[a] (participants)
Immune response, adverse effects
Clinical trial site(s)Duration[b]Authorization
BNT162b2
BioNTech, 
Fosun Pharma, 
Pfizer
mRNAPhase III (30,000)[86]
Randomized, placebo-controlledPositive results from an interim analysis were announced on 18 November 2020.[87]
Phase I–II (45)
Strong RBD-binding IgG and neutralizing antibody response peaked 7 days after a booster dose, robust CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, undetermined durability. Adverse effects: dose-dependent and moderate including pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, chills, muscle and joint pain, fever[88]
62 in the US, GermanyApr 2020 – Nov 2020[89][90]EUA
pending
US FDA,[91]
and EU EMA[92]approved
UK MHRA[10]
AZD1222
University of Oxford, 
AstraZeneca
Modified chimpanzee adenovirus vector (ChAdOx1)Phase III (30,000)
Interventional; randomized, placebo-controlled study for efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity.[97] Brazil (5,000)[98]International enrolment of the Phase III trial was paused on 8 September 2020, due to an adverse neurological event in one participant,[99] but resumed on 12 September in the UK.[100] On 23 October, AstraZeneca said it will resume the trial in the US.[101]Positive results from an interim analysis were announced on 23 November 2020.[8][9]
Phase I–II (543)
Spike-specific antibodies at day 28; neutralizing antibodies after a booster dose at day 56. Adverse effects: pain at the injection site, headache, fever, chills, muscle achemalaise in more than 60% of participants; paracetamol allowed for some participants to increase tolerability[102]
20 in the UK, São PauloMay 2020 – Aug 2021
Ad5-nCoV
CanSinoBIO,
Beijing Institute of Biotechnology of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences,
NPO Petrovax
Recombinant adenovirus type 5 vectorPhase III (40,000)
global multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled to evaluate efficacy, safety and immunogenicity in Mexico,[105] Pakistan,[106] Russia (500),[103] Saudi Arabia[107][108]
Phase II (508)
Neutralizing antibody and T cell responses. Adverse effects: moderate over 7 days: 74% had fever, pain, fatigue[109]
China,Pakistan, 4 in Russia[103]Mar – Dec 2020 in ChinaSep 2020 – Dec 2021 in Pakistan Sep 2020 – Nov 2020 in Russia[103]
Unnamed
Sinopharm: Beijing Institute of Biological Products,
Wuhan Institute of Biological Products
Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 (vero cells)Phase III (48,000)
Randomized, double-blind, parallel placebo-controlled, to evaluate safety and protective efficacy in the United Arab EmiratesBahrainJordan,[111] and Argentina[112]UAE and Bahrain have approved the vaccine for emergency use by front-line healthcare workers in September and November respectively.[113] [114]
Phase I–II (320)
Neutralizing antibodies at day 14 after 2 injections; Adverse effects: injection site pain and fever, which were mild and self-limiting; no serious effects[115]
Jiaozuo,Abu DhabiJul 2020 – Jul 2021 in Abu DhabiEUA in China,[116] Bahrain,[117] and UAE[118]
CoronaVac
Sinovac
Inactivated SARS-CoV-2Phase III (33,620)
Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled to evaluate efficacy and safety in Brazil (15,000);[122] Chile (3,000);[123] Indonesia (1,620); Turkey (13,000)[124]Brazil paused Phase III trials on November 10 after the suicide of a volunteer in the trials before resuming them on November 11.[125]
Phase II (600)
Immunogenicity eliciting 92% seroconversion at lower dose and 98% at higher dose after 14 days; Adverse effects: mild in severity, pain at injection site[126]
2 in China; 22 in Brazil;[127] Bandung, Indonesia[128]Jul 2020 – Oct 2021 in BrazilAugust 2020 – January 2021 in Bandung, Indonesia
Gam-COVID-Vac 
(Sputnik V)
Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology;
trade name: Sputnik V
Non-replicating viral vectorPhase III (40,000)
Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled to evaluate efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety[129]
Phase I–II (76) Neutralizing antibody and T cell responses. Adverse effects: pain at injection site, fever, headache, weakness, and muscle/joint pain[130]MoscowJun 2020[130] – May 2021
mRNA-1273[131][132]
ModernaNIAIDBARDA
Lipid nanoparticle dispersion containing mRNAPhase III (30,000)
Interventional; randomized, placebo-controlled study for efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity.Positive results from an interim analysis were announced on 15 November 2020.[133]
Phase I (45)
Dose-dependent neutralizing antibody response on two-dose schedule; undetermined durability. Adverse effects: fever, fatigue, headache, muscle ache, and pain at the injection site[134][135]
89 in the USJuly 2020 – October 2022EUA
pending approval by US FDA,[136] EU EMA, and UK MHRA[137]
Ad26.COV2.S
Janssen Pharmaceutica 
(Johnson & Johnson), 
BIDMC
Non-replicating viral vectorPhase III (60,000)
Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlledTemporarily paused on 13 October 2020, due to an unexplained illness in a participant.[141] Johnson & Johnson announced, on 23 October, that they are preparing to resume the trial in the US.[142][143]
Phase I–II (1,045) Preprint. Seroconversion for S antibodies over 95%. Adverse effects: injection site pain, fatigue, headache and myalgia291 in US, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, South Africa and UkraineJul 2020 – 2023
NVX-CoV2373
Novavax
SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein nanoparticle with adjuvantPhase III (15,000)
Randomised, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial[145]
Phase I–II (131) IgG and neutralizing antibody response with adjuvant after booster doseAdverse effects: short-duration, low grade, local pain, headache, fatigue, myalgia[146]UKSep 2020 – Jan 2021
BBV152 (Covaxin)Bharat Biotech, Indian Council of Medical Research,Inactivated SARS-CoV-2Phase III (25,800)Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled[147]Pending Phase I–II reportIndiaNov 2020 – Mar 2022
CoVLPMedicagoGSKVirus-like particlesPhase II–III (30,612)Event-driven, randomized, observer blinded, placebo-controlled[148]Phase I (180)Neutralizing antibodies at day 42 after the first injection (day 21 after the second injection) were at levels 10x that of COVID-19 survivors.[149][150]CanadaNov 2020 – Apr 2022
Unnamed[3][4][5][151]
Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical Co. Ltd.
Recombinant protein subunitPhase II (900)
Interventional; randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled [152]
Phase I (50)ChongqingJun 2020 – Sep 2021
CVnCoV[153]
CureVacCEPI
mRNAPhase II (691)
Partially observer-blind, multicenter, controlled, dose-confirmation[154]
Phase I (168)Ghent, 3 in GermanyJun 2020 – Aug 2021
INO-4800[e][155][156]
InovioCEPIKorea National Institute of HealthInternational Vaccine Institute
DNA plasmid delivered by electroporationPhase I–II (40)Pending Phase I report3 in the US, SeoulApr–Nov 2020
EpiVacCorona[157]
Vector
Vaccine based on peptide antigens[157]Phase I–II (100)
Simple, blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity[157]
Pending Phase I–II reportRussiaJul 2020[157] – ?
Unnamed[158]
Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Inactivated SARS-CoV-2Phase I–II (942)
Randomized, double-blinded, single-center, placebo-controlled
ChengduJun 2020 – Sep 2021
AG0301-COVID‑19[159]
AnGes Inc.,[160] AMED
DNA plasmidPhase I–II (30)
Non-randomized, single-center, two doses
OsakaJun 2020 – Jul 2021
Lunar-COV19/ARCT-021[161][162]Arcturus TherapeuticsmRNAPhase I–II (92)
Randomized, double-blinded
SingaporeAug 2020 – ?
COVID‑19/aAPC[163]
Shenzhen Genoimmune Medical Institute[164]
Lentiviral vector with minigene modifying aAPCsPhase I (100)ShenzhenMar 2020 – 2023
LV-SMENP-DC[165]
Shenzhen Genoimmune Medical Institute[164]
Lentiviral vector with minigene modifying DCsPhase I (100)ShenzhenMar 2020 – 2023
LNP-nCoVsaRNA[166]
MRC clinical trials unit at Imperial College London
mRNAPhase I (105)
Randomized trial, with dose escalation study (15) and expanded safety study (at least 200)
4 in the UKJun 2020 – Jul 2021
GX-19[167][168]
Genexine consortium,[169] International Vaccine Institute
DNAPhase I (40)SeoulJun 2020 – Jun 2022
SCB-2019[170][171]
Clover Biopharmaceuticals,[172] GSK
Spike protein trimeric subunit with GSK adjuvantPhase I (150)PerthJun 2020 – Mar 2021
COVAX-19[173]
Vaxine Pty Ltd[174]
Recombinant proteinPhase I (40)AdelaideJun 2020 – Jul 2021
Unnamed[175]
PLA Academy of Military Science, Walvax Biotech[176]
mRNAPhase I (168)2 in ChinaJun 2020 – Dec 2021
CoVLPs
GSKMedicago[180] (governments of Canada and Quebec)
Recombinant plant-based VLP with GSK adjuvantPhase I (180)
Randomized, dose-ranging
2 in CanadaJul 2020 – Apr 2021
SARS-CoV-2 Sclamp[
UQSyneos HealthCEPISeqirus
Molecular clamp stabilized spike protein with MF59Phase I (120)
Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging
BrisbaneJul–Oct 2020

Government Health Organization COVID-19 Vaccine Hubs

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

World Health Organization

World Bank

Non-Government Organization COVID-19 Vaccine Hubs

Care International

Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations

Doctors Without Borders

Gates Foundation

Population Services International

Wikimedia’s Wikipedia COVID-19 Vaccine page

Healthcare Company COVID-19 Pages

Abbvie Research and Development – American

Bayer Treatment for COVID-19 – German

CVS Health COVID-19 Resource Center – American

GlaxoSmithKline COVID-19 Solutions – British

Johnson & Johnson Vaccine and Therapies for COVID-19 – American

Merck COVID-19 Response – American

Novartis CAN-COVID Clinical Trial – Swiss

Pfizer’s Coronavirus Vaccine – American

Roche COVID-19 Response – Swiss

Sanofi’s Response – French

UnitedHealth Group COVID-19 Newsroom – American

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